Guía Docente 2021-22
FISIOTERAPIA EN ESPECIALIDADES CLÍNICAS II

DATOS BÁSICOS DE LA GUÍA DOCENTE:

Materia: FISIOTERAPIA EN ESPECIALIDADES CLÍNICAS II
Identificador: 30387
Titulación: GRADUADO EN FISIOTERAPIA. PLAN 2009 (BOE 15/10/2011)
Módulo: FISIOTERAPIA EN ESPECIALIDADES CLINICAS
Tipo: OBLIGATORIA
Curso: 3 Periodo lectivo: Segundo Cuatrimestre
Créditos: 6 Horas totales: 150
Actividades Presenciales: 53 Trabajo Autónomo: 97
Idioma Principal: Inglés Idioma Secundario: Castellano
Profesor: Correo electrónico:

PRESENTACIÓN:

The subject Physiotherapy in Clinical Specialties II aims to provide the students with basic knowledge for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in order to be applied for different populations and pathologies. This subject aims to develop students´ competences in order to allow them to integrate specific myofascial pain treatment techniques along with the rest of the techniques studied during the Physiotherapy Degree. In this subject, teaching methodology combines master classes that provide basic knowledge that the student has to handle, together with methodologies that improve clinical reasoning and problem solving skills so that the student can integrate and apply his/ her clinical knowledge more effectively.

All this theoretical content and clinical reasoning will be coordinated with workshops to allow students to develop their practical skills, as well as with activities oriented to help students to communicate with their patients in this specific area of knowledge.

COMPETENCIAS PROFESIONALES A DESARROLLAR EN LA MATERIA:

Competencias Generales de la titulación G01 Capacidad de análisis y síntesis de las informaciones obtenidas de diversas fuentes, con el objetivo de proporcionar una atención fisioterapéutica eficaz centrada en la asistencia integral a los pacientes/ usuarios
G02 Resolución creativa y eficaz de los problemas que surgen en la práctica diaria, con el objetivo de garantizar los niveles máximos de calidad de la labor profesional realizada
G03 Capacidad de organización y planificación de la labor fisioterapéutica
G04 Uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para la aproximación a las necesidades de los pacientes/ clientes y para el diseño, aplicación y evaluación de los tratamientos
G08 Capacidad de aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos
Competencias Específicas de la titulación E17 Conocer y aplicar las bases teóricas y el desarrollo de los métodos y procedimientos fisioterapeúticos
E18 Tener la capacidad de valorar desde la perspectiva de la fisioterapia, el estado funcional del paciente/ usuario, considerando los aspectos físicos, psicológicos y sociales del mismo.
E19 Comprender y aplicar los métodos y procedimientos manuales e instrumentales de valoración en Fisioterapia y Rehabilitación Física, así como la evaluación científica de su utilidad y efectividad
E22 Identificar el tratamiento fisioterapéutico más apropiado en los diferentes procesos de alteración, prevención y promoción de la salud así como en los procesos de crecimiento y desarrollo
Profesiones reguladas P07 Diseñar el plan de intervención de fisioterapia atendiendo a criterios de adecuación, validez y eficiencia
P08 Ejecutar, dirigir y coordinar el plan de intervención de fisioterapia, utilizando las herramientas terapéuticas propias y atendiendo a la individualidad del usuario
P09 Evaluar la evolución de los resultados obtenidos con el tratamiento en relación con los objetivos marcados
P10 Elaborar el informe de alta de los cuidados de fisioterapia una vez cubiertos los objetivos propuestos
P19 Comunicarse de modo efectivo y claro, tanto de forma oral como escrita, con los usuarios del sistema sanitario así como con otros profesionales
Resultados de Aprendizaje R01 To know the physiopathology of myofascial trigger points and the clinical characteristics of myofascial pain syndrome
R02 To identify and properly assess myofascial pain
R03 To properly prescribe and use the different conservative and invasive techniques for myofascial pain treatment
R04 To recognize and identify the different activating and perpetuating factors of myofascial pain syndrome as well as to carry out an adequate proposal to eliminate these factors
R05 To know the indications and contraindications, therapeutic effects and existing evidence about new trends in dry needling

REQUISITOS PREVIOS:

In order to ensure a good understanding of the subject, the student must have good palpating skills and functional anatomy knowledge. Also, the student must know the basic neurophisiology of pain.

The student will be best able to take advantage of this subject and improve clinical integration skills if he/ she has attended the following subjects:

Clinical Interview Workshop

Physiotherapy Evaluation

Specific physiotherapy intervention methods II (locomotor)

General physiotherapy procedures II

Physiotherapy in clinical specialties I

PROGRAMACIÓN DE LA MATERIA:

Observaciones:


The subject will be structured in the following parts:

Unit I: Theory. The objective will be to provide the students with the theory and the background of myofascial pain and invasive therapies, allowing them to understand the main concepts and promote critical an clinical thinking.

Unit II. Practical workshops. In these workshops, students will work in pairs and will have the oportunity to practice the consevative and invasive treatments in the selected MTrPs.

Unit III: Special seminars will be organized with the objective to show some novative uses of traditional dry needling approaches, as well as linking them to the clinical practice.

Another part in the subject, transversal to all parts will be to develop a video about a topic from a list proposed by the lecturers.

Contenidos de la materia:

1 - Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrP) and Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS)
    1.1 - Introduction and characteristics of Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) and Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS)
       1.1.1 - The concept of Myofascial Trigger Point (MTrP) and Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS)
       1.1.2 - Integrated Hypothesis
       1.1.3 - Current theories about MTrP: analysis of the different theories from the available scientific evidence
       1.1.4 - The nature of MTrP
       1.1.5 - Characteristics of MTrP
       1.1.6 - Classification of MTrP: active and latent
    1.2 - MPS diagnosis and assessment
       1.2.1 - Diagnostic criteria of MTrP
       1.2.2 - MTrP Exploration
       1.2.3 - The MPS: differential diagnosis
       1.2.4 - Patient Assessment
    1.3 - Activating and perpetuating factors
    1.4 - Conservative treatment of MPS
    1.5 - Invasive treatment of MPS
       1.5.1 - Mechanisms of action of superficial and deep dry needling
       1.5.2 - Evidence-based dry needling
       1.5.3 - Indications and contraindications of dry needling. Areas of risk.
       1.5.4 - Dry needling needles: characteristics and dimensions
       1.5.5 - Considerations prior to dry needling
       1.5.6 - Considerations during dry needling treatment
       1.5.7 - Legal considerations about dry needling
2 - Conservative and invasive treatment of myofascial trigger points
    2.1 - Diacutaneous Fibrolysis
    2.2 - Infraspinatus Muscle
       2.2.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.2.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.2.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.2.4 - Algometry practice
       2.2.5 - Superficial and Deep Dry Needling
    2.3 - Gastrocnemius Muscle
       2.3.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.3.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.3.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.3.4 - Deep dry needling of gastrocnemius muscle. Flat and pincer needling
    2.4 - Peroneus Muscle
       2.4.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.4.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.4.3 - Deep dry needling of Peroneus
    2.5 - Sternocleidomastoid muscle
       2.5.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.5.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.5.3 - Pincer palpation. Identification of the taut band and the MTrP. Provocation of LTR
       2.5.4 - Conservative treatment
    2.6 - Extensor digitorum communis muscle
       2.6.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.6.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.6.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.6.4 - Deep dry needling of Extensor digitorum communis muscle
    2.7 - Quadratus lumborum muscle
       2.7.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.7.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.7.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.7.4 - Deep dry needling of Quadratus Lumborum
    2.8 - Iliopsoas muscle
       2.8.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.8.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.8.3 - Conservative treatment
    2.9 - Quadriceps muscle
       2.9.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.9.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.9.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.9.4 - Deep dry needling of quadriceps
    2.10 - Scaleni muscles
       2.10.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.10.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.10.3 - Deep dry needling of scaleni muscles
    2.11 - Hamstrings muscles
       2.11.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.11.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.11.3 - Deep dry needling of Hamstrings
    2.12 - Gluteus medius and minimus muscle
       2.12.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.12.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.12.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.12.4 - Deep dry needling of gluteus medius and minimus
    2.13 - Trapezius and levator scapulae muscles
       2.13.1 - Activating and perpetuating factors
       2.13.2 - Referred pain patterns
       2.13.3 - Conservative treatment
       2.13.4 - Deep dry needling of trapezius muscle
3 - New trends in dry needling
    3.1 - Percutaneous electrolysis
    3.2 - Dry Needling for Hypertonia and Spasticity (DNHS technique)
    3.3 - Percutaneous Neuromodulation

La planificación de la asignatura podrá verse modificada por motivos imprevistos (rendimiento del grupo, disponibilidad de recursos, modificaciones en el calendario académico, etc.) y por tanto no deberá considerarse como definitiva y cerrada.


METODOLOGÍAS Y ACTIVIDADES DE ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE:

Metodologías de enseñanza-aprendizaje a desarrollar:

Teaching-learning methodologies will change depending on the unit:

1 - Introduction to Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS).

The methodology of Unit I will consist of online master classes in order to present the theoretical content of the subject. The classes will be very interactive and the student will have participate in differents activities that the lecturer will propose.

 

2 - Conservative and invasive treatment of myofascial trigger points. 

The methodology of Unit II will consist of theoretical-practical demonstrations. After them, the students will have the opportunity to practise these skills and competences with a partner. Both students will perform both roles: physio and patient. The lecturers will supervise the students in pairs. 

 

3 - New trends in dry needling.

The methodology of Unit III will be based on online theoretical-practical seminars in which new trends of dry needling will be shown.

 

Complementary, students will be guided during their group works, as these will be evaluated with a 30% of the total subject score. They will have to present a video about a topic previously agreed with the lecturer. 

 

 

Volumen de trabajo del alumno:

Modalidad organizativa Métodos de enseñanza Horas estimadas
Actividades Presenciales
Clase magistral 15
Otras actividades teóricas 3
Casos prácticos 4
Resolución de prácticas, problemas, ejercicios etc. 4
Debates 1
Talleres 19
Actividades de evaluación 1
New trends in dry needling seminars 6
Trabajo Autónomo
Asistencia a tutorías 9
Estudio individual 50
Preparación de trabajos en equipo 20
Practical exam preparation 18
Horas totales: 150

SISTEMA DE EVALUACIÓN:

Obtención de la nota final:

Pruebas escritas: 35 %
Trabajos en equipo: 30 %
Prueba final: 35 %
TOTAL 100 %

*Las observaciones específicas sobre el sistema de evaluación serán comunicadas por escrito a los alumnos al inicio de la materia.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA Y DOCUMENTACIÓN:

Bibliografía básica:

Simons DG, Travell JG, Simons LS. Dolor y disfunción miofascial. El manual de los puntos gatillo. Extremidades inferiores. Madrid: Editorial Médica Panamericana; 2006.
Simons DG, Travell JG, Simons LS. Dolor y disfunción miofascial. El manual de los puntos gatillo. Mitad superior del cuerpo. Madrid: Editorial Médica Panamericana; 2006.
Valera Garrido F, Minaya Muñoz F. Fisioterapia invasiva. Barcelona: Editorial Elsevier España, S.L. 2016. 2ª edición. ISBN: 9788491130994
Valera Garrido F, Minaya Muñoz F. Advanced Techniques in Musculoskeletal Medicine & Physiotherapy. Editorial Elsevier. ISBN 10: 070206534X ISBN 13: 9780702065347.
Mayoral del Moral O, Salvat Salvat I. Fisioterapia Invasiva del Síndrome de Dolor Miofascial. Editorial Médica Panamericana.ISBN-10: 8498351030; ISBN-13: 978-8498351033

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Dommerholt J, Huijbregts P. Myofascial trigger points. Pathophysiology and evidence-informed diagnosis and management. Editorial Jones and Bartlett; 2010.
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Hong CZ, Simons DG. Pathophysiologic and electrophysiologic mechanisms of myofascial trigger points. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(7):863-72
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Chen JT, Chung KC, Hou CR, Kuan TS, Chen SM, Hong CZ. Inhibitory effect of dry needling on the spontaneous electrical activity recorded from myofascial trigger spots of rabbit skeletal muscle. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80(10):729-35
Chen Q, Bensamoun S, Basford JR, Thompson JM, An KN. Identification and quantification of myofascial taut bands with magnetic resonance elastography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(12):1658-61
Hsieh CY, Hong CZ, Adams AH, et al. Interexaminer reliability of the palpation of trigger points in the trunk and lower limb muscles. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:258-64
Rha DW, Shin JC, Kim YK, Jung JH, Kim YU, Lee SC. Detecting local twitch responses of myofascial trigger points in the lower-back muscles using ultrasonography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(10):1576-80
Sikdar S, Shah JP, Gebreab T, Yen RH, Gilliams E, Danoff J, et al. Novel applications of ultrasound technology to visualize and characterize myofascial trigger points and surrounding soft tissue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90(11):1829-38
Ballyns JJ, Shah JP, Hammond J, Gebreab T, Gerber LH, Sikdar S. Objective sonographic measures for characterizing myofascial trigger points associated with cervical pain. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30(10):1331-40
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Lucas KR. The impact of latent trigger points on regional muscle function. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(5):344-9
Lucas KR, Rich PA, Polus BI. Muscle activation patterns in the scapular positioning muscles during loaded scapular plane elevation: the effects of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2010;25(8):765-70
Audette JF, Wang F, Smith H. Bilateral activation of motor unit potentials with unilateral needle stimulation of active myofascial trigger points. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;83(5):368-74, quiz 75-7, 89
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Simons DG, Hong CZ, Simons LS. Endplate potentials are common to midfiber myofacial trigger points. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(3):212-22
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Shah JP, Gilliams EA. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008;12(4):371-84.
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Páginas web recomendadas:

Seminarios Travell y Simons www.travellysimons.com
Técnica DNHS www.dnhs.es
Trigger Points Maps www.triggerpoints.net
NOIGROUP http://www.noigroup.com/
Sociedad Científica Fisioterapia Invasiva Neurmusculoesquelética http://www.socifin.org/


* Guía Docente sujeta a modificaciones