Guía Docente 2021-22
TOXICOLOGÍA

BASIC DETAILS:

Subject: TOXICOLOGÍA
Id.: 33362
Programme: DOBLE GRADO EN FARMACIA Y BIOINFORMÁTICA. PLAN 2018
Module: MEDICINA Y FARMACOLOGÍA
Subject type: OBLIGATORIA
Year: 5 Teaching period: Primer Cuatrimestre
Credits: 6 Total hours: 150
Classroom activities: 64 Individual study: 86
Main teaching language: Inglés Secondary teaching language: Castellano
Lecturer: Email:

PRESENTATION:

Toxicology is critical for pharmaceutical sciencies in that it could be defined as the science branch dealing with toxic substances which are defined as those causing an adverse effect in a living organism when they reach this by accident or by means of an inadequate adminstration. According to international standards, this science also includes physic phenomena such as radiation and noise pollution. The study of toxicants helps society in a variety of ways and not only protecting human beings and environment from their adverse effects but also facilitating the development of more specific toxicants which could be beneficial in chemotherapy and other chemicals such as pesticides. Its impact on forensic and legal issues is also relevant.

La toxicología s muy relevante para las ciencias farmacológicas ya que puede definirse como la rama de la ciencia que se ocupa de las substancias tóxicas, las cuales se definen como aquellas que causan un efecto perjudicial en los seres vivos al ser administradas, bien por accidente o de forma inadecuada, a un organismo vivo. Por acuerdo internacional, la toxicología también incluye fenómenos físicos tales como la radiacion y el ruido. El estudio de los tóxicos sirve a la sociedad de formas variadas, no solo para proteger a los humanos y al medio ambiente de sus efectos perniciosos sino también para facilitar el desarrollo de tóxicos más selectivos que puedan tener efectos beneficiosos tales como substancias para quimioterápia y otras drogas de uso clínico, así como pesticidas. Su influencia en aspectos forenses y periciales es también destacable.

 

 

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCES ACQUIRED IN THE SUBJECT:

General programme competences G01 Ability to express opinions and propose arguments effectively both orally and in writing. Effectively use language skills to express views and formulate arguments both orally and in writing.
G02 Troubleshooting and decision-making.
G03 Ability for autonomous learning and self-criticism.
G04 Ability to effectively use new information and communications technology to improve written and oral presentations and to facilitate data analysis.
G05 Ability for teamwork, actively contributing to the objectives and the organisation of a team.
G06 Ability to transfer the knowledge acquired in practical work and skills to the field of work.
G07 Demonstrate creativity, independence of thought, autonomy.
G08 Demonstrate critical and analytical ability to conventional approaches of the discipline.
G09 Demonstrate capacity for innovation, creativity and initiative.
G11 Knowledge of the English language for use in professional environments.
Specific programme competences E03 Llevar a cabo procesos de laboratorio estándar incluyendo el uso de equipos científicos de síntesis y análisis, instrumentación apropiada incluida.
E04 Assess the risks associated with the use of chemicals substances and laboratory processes.
E17 Conocer las estructuras de las biomoléculas y sus transformaciones en la célula.
E20 Comprender la relación entre el ciclo de vida de los agentes infecciosos y las propiedades de los principios activos.
E23 Conocer las propiedades de las membranas celulares y la distribución de fármacos.
E25 Conocer las principales rutas metabólicas que intervienen en la degradación de fármacos.
E29 Knowledge of the processes of liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs, and factors that influence the absorption and disposition depending on their routes of administration.
E35 Utilizar de forma segura los medicamentos teniendo en cuenta sus propiedades físicas y químicas incluyendo cualquier riesgo asociado a su uso.
E36 Conocer y comprender los fundamentos básicos de los análisis clínicos y las características y contenidos de los dictámenes del diagnóstico de laboratorio.
E37 Develop health and hygiene analysis (biochemical, food science, microbiological, parasitological) related to general health and with food and environment in particular.
E38 Evaluar los efectos de sustancias con actividad farmacológica.
E39 Conocer y comprender las técnicas utilizadas en el diseño y evaluación de los ensayos preclínicos y clínicos.
E40 Llevar a cabo las actividades de farmacia clínica y social, siguiendo el ciclo de atención farmacéutica.
E41 Promote the rational use of medication and healthcare products.
E42 Adquirir las habilidades necesarias para poder prestar consejo terapéutico en farmacoterapia y dietoterapia, así como consejo nutricional y alimentario a los usuarios de los establecimientos en los que presten servicio.
E43 Comprender la relación existente entre alimentación y salud, y la importancia de la dieta en el tratamiento y prevención de las enfermedades.
E44 Understand the management and the characteristics of pharmaceutical assistance in Primary and Specialised Care structures in the Healthcare System.
E45 Assess the toxicological effects of the substance and design and implement appropriate tests and analysis.
E46 Conocer las propiedades y mecanismos de acción de los fármacos.
E47 Understand the structure and function of the human body as well as the general mechanisms of disease, molecular, structural and functional alterations, syndromic expression and therapeutic tools for restoring health.
E48 Learn about the nature, mechanism of action and effect of toxins and resources in case of intoxication.
E49 Conocer las técnicas analíticas relacionadas con diagnóstico de laboratorio, tóxicos, alimentos y medioambiente.
E50 Understand the management and characteristics of pharmaceutical assistance in an office environment and in the pharmaceutical industry.
E54 Use efficiently information retrieval techniques for primary and secondary sources of information (including databases using computer).
E58 Learn the techniques of oral and written communication skills in order to be able to inform users of pharmaceutical establishments in terms that are understandable and appropriate for different cultural levels and social environments.
E64 Proporcionar atención farmacéutica a los pacientes.
E65 Realizar farmacovigilancia.
Regulated profession competences P02 Evaluate the therapeutic and toxic effects of substances with pharmacological activity.
P03 Know how to apply the scientific method and acquire skills in handling legislation, sources, bibliography, developing protocols and other aspects considered necessary for the critical design and evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials.
P05 Prestar consejo terapéutico en farmacoterapia y dietoterapia, así como en el ámbito nutricional y alimentario en los establecimientos en los que presten servicios.
P06 Promote rational use of medicines and healthcare products, and acquire basic knowledge in clinical management, health economics and efficient use of healthcare resources.
P07 Identify, evaluate and assess the problems related to drugs and medication as well as participate in pharmacovigilance activities.
P08 Llevar a cabo las actividades de farmacia clínica y social, siguiendo el ciclo de atención farmacéutica.
P09 Intervenir en las actividades de promoción de la salud, prevención de enfermedad, en el ámbito individual, familiar y comunitario; con una visión integral y multiprofesional del proceso salud-enfermedad.
P10 Diseñar, aplicar y evaluar reactivos, métodos y técnicas analíticas clínicas, conociendo los fundamentos básicos de los análisis clínicos y las características y contenidos de los dictámenes de diagnóstico de laboratorio.
P11 Assess the toxicological effects of the substance and design and implement appropriate tests and analysis.
P12 Desarrollar análisis higiénico-sanitarios, especialmente los relacionados con los alimentos y medioambiente.
P13 Develop information and communication skills, both oral and written, to deal with patients and users of the centre where the professional activity is conducted.
P15 Recognise the limitations and the need to maintain and update professional skills, with particular emphasis on self-learning of new knowledge based on the available scientific evidence.

PRE-REQUISITES:

Toxicology is a multidisciplinar science using concepts and methodologies from many other basic disciplines in order to solve issues of its own. To be more precise, the adequate understanding of toxicologic problems require a solid base in Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacology. The strategic location of this subject in the final year of the Pharmacy degree guarantees that alumni have received a previous development in those disciplines in order to embed the contents of this course. On the top of the specific aspects refereing to Toxicology Science, this subject will give the students the chance to use and integrate the tools and knowledge encountered in the previous courses of the degree with a view to grasp toxicologic problems in a critical way using to this end all the knowledge acquired in the previous years.

La Toxicología es una ciencia multidisciplinar que utiliza conceptos y métodos de otras muchas disciplinas básicas para resolver  los problemas que le son propios. En concreto la correcta comprensión de los problemas toxicológicos requiere una base sólida en Química, Bioquímica, Fisiología y Farmacología. La ubicación estratégica de la asignatura en el 5º curso del grado garantiza que el alumno haya recibido la formación previa necesaria, para asimilar correctamente los contenidos de la materia. Esta asignatura, además de los aspectos y conocimientos específicos referentes a la toxicología, brindará al alumno la oportunidad de comenzar a utilizar e integrar las herramientas y conocimientos adquiridos en los cuatro cursos anteriores con la finalidad de analizar problemas toxicológicos de una forma crítica y selectiva utilizando para ello todos los recursos proporcionados y adquiridos con anterioridad.

SUBJECT PROGRAMME:

Subject contents:

1 - Introduction to Toxicology
    1.1 - Definition of Toxicology
    1.2 - Historic overview of Toxicology
    1.3 - Current objectives of Toxicology
    1.4 - Multidiscipline nature of Toxicology
    1.5 - Scope of modern Toxicology
    1.6 - Main applied branches: forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, occupational toxicology, environmental toxicology and food poisonings
2 - Qualitative and quantitative aspects of Toxicology
    2.1 - Definition of Toxic
    2.2 - Clasification of toxic agents
    2.3 - Definition of poisoning
    2.4 - Types of poisonings
    2.5 - Definition of toxicity
    2.6 - Applied criteria to the study of toxicity
    2.7 - Effect-dose-time relationship
    2.8 - Selectivity, Sensitivity and safety range
    2.9 - Molecular aspects impacting a given substance toxicity
3 - Stages in the toxic process: Exposition and Absorption
    3.1 - General Principles
    3.2 - Exposition phase: Physical availability and toxic absorption
    3.3 - Processes involved in the toxicokinetic phase
4 - Toxicokinetic phase. Distribution and Retention
    4.1 - Concept of Biological availability. Compartmental models
    4.2 - Elements impacting on the toxic distribution
    4.3 - Elements impacting retention of a toxic compound
    4.4 - Biologic and environmental elements impacting on the biotransformation kinetics
5 - Toxicokinetic phase. Biotransformation and elimination
    5.1 - General Principles
    5.2 - Phase I Reactions
    5.3 - Phase II Reactions
    5.4 - Consequences of the biotransformation process
6 - Toxicodynamic phase
    6.1 - Characteristics of the toxicodynamic phase
    6.2 - Main determinants involved in the toxic effects of xenobiotics
    6.3 - Main cellular damage caused by xenobiotics. Mechanisms of toxic effect
7 - Genetic Toxicology
    7.1 - General Principles
    7.3 - Mutagenesis. Mechanisms of induction of genetic alterations
    7.4 - Types of mutagenic effects
    7.5 - Molecular mechanisms
    7.6 - Impact on human health
    7.7 - Assessment of genetic alterations
    7.8 - Transgenic Models
8 - Chemical Carcinogenesis
    8.1 - Overview
    8.3 - Definition of carcinogenic agent
    8.4 - Mechanisms and stages of carcinogenesis
    8.5 - Types of carcinogens
9 - Developmental toxicology. Teratogenesis
    9.1 - Scope of problem-The human experience
    9.3 - Principles of developmental toxicology
    9.4 - Mechanisms and Pathogenesis of developmental toxicology
    9.7 - Modern Safety Assessment
10 - Toxic responses of the liver
    10.1 - Overview
    10.2 - Liver physiology. An overview
    10.3 - Hepatotoxic agents
    10.4 - Mechanisms and types of Toxin-induced liver injury
    10.7 - Critical factors in toxicant-induced liver injury
11 - Toxic responses of the immune system
    11.1 - The immune system
    11.2 - Immunomodulation by xenobiotics
    11.3 - Xenobiotic-induced hypersensitivity and autoimmunity
12 - Antitoxic therapy
    12.2 - Definition of antagonist and antidote
    12.3 - Foundations of antitoxic therapy
    12.4 - Therapies based on toxican absorption obstruction
    12.5 - Therapies based on increased elimination rates
    12.6 - Therapies based on an increased toxicity threshold
    12.7 - Diagnosis of poisonings
13 - Toxic effects of pesticides
    13.1 - Overview
    13.2 - Economics and Public Health
    13.3 - Insecticides
    13.4 - Herbicides
    13.5 - Fungicides
    13.6 - Rodenticides
14 - Toxic effects of Heavy Metals
    14.1 - Overview
    14.2 - Major Toxic Metals
    14.3 - Essential Metals with potential for toxicity
    14.4 - Metals related to medical therapy

Subject planning could be modified due unforeseen circumstances (group performance, availability of resources, changes to academic calendar etc.) and should not, therefore, be considered to be definitive.


TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGIES AND ACTIVITIES:

Teaching and learning methodologies and activities applied:

COVID19. Due to the amunt of delegates in each classroom, it is anticipated that ALL lectures would be "in-class"

 

The student will acquire the desired knowledge and skills through the study of the teaching programme subjects. To this end we will provide the following tools:

This plan will potentialy be subject of changes depending on unpredicted events such as group progress, resources availability, calendar changes and accomodation of other subject needs and therefore should not be considered as closed and final.

El alumo adquirirá los conociminetos necesarios para superar la asignatura a través del estudio de los temas del programa. Para ello se proporcionarán las siguientes herramientas:

Esta planificación queda sujeta a posibles cambios y podrán verse modificados por motivos imprevistos (rendimiento del grupo, disponibilidad de recursos, modificaciones del calendario, necesidades de otras aignaturas) y por tanto no deben considerarse como cerrados y definitivos.

 

Student work load:

Teaching mode Teaching methods Estimated hours
Classroom activities
Master classes 46
Practical work, exercises, problem-solving etc. 6
Coursework presentations 4
Films, videos, documentaries etc. 4
Participation in seminars, conferences etc. 2
Assessment activities 2
Individual study
Tutorials 1
Individual study 35
Individual coursework preparation 10
Group cousework preparation 23
Project work 10
Recommended reading 7
Total hours: 150

ASSESSMENT SCHEME:

Calculation of final mark:

Individual coursework: 45 %
Group coursework: 15 %
Final exam: 40 %
TOTAL 100 %

*Las observaciones específicas sobre el sistema de evaluación serán comunicadas por escrito a los alumnos al inicio de la materia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND DOCUMENTATION:

Basic bibliography:

KLAASEN, Curtis. Essentials of Toxicology. 2nd edition. McGraw Hill2010
REPETTO, M. Toxicología fundamental. Ed. Diaz de Santos.

Recommended bibliography:

Hodgson, E. A textbook of modern toxicology. Editorial Wiley (disponible en pdf)
Olson Kent, R. Poison and Drug overdose. Appleton
Ellenhom, M. Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Williams and Wilkins. 2ª edicion. 1996
Gossel, T.A. Principles of Clinical Toxicology. New York: Raven Press. 3ª ed. 1994
Marruecos,L. Toxicología clínica. Barcelona: Springer-Verlag Iberica. 1993
Dreisbach, H. Manual de Intoxicaciones: Prevención, Diagnosis y Tratamiento. Appleton and Lange 1987

Recommended websites:

AGENCY FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND DISEASE REGISTRY http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov
BUSCADOR DE INFORMACION TOXICOLOGICA Y AMBIENTAL http://busca-tox.com
CHEMICAL SAFETY INFORMATION FROM INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS http://www.inchem.org
INTEGRATED RISK INFORMATION SYSTEM http://www.epa.gov
PROGRAMA DE INFORMACION Y FORMACION EN TOXICOLOGIA CLINICA http://wzar.unizar.es/stc/toxicologianet/index.htm
TOXIPEDIA http://toxipedia.org
TOXNET (toxicology data network) http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov
VARIOUS TYPES OF PESTICIDE TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY INFORMATION http://extoxnet.orst.edu
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TOXICOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS FORENSES http://institutodetoxicologia.justicia.es
EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGY http://www.eurotox.com
FEDERACION INTERNACIONAL DE LA INDUSTRIA DEL MEDICAMENTO http://www.ifpma.org
INSTITUTO DE FARMACOLOGIA Y TOXICOLOGIA CSIC/UCM http://www.ucm.es/info/farmamed/html/instituto.htm
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF REGULATORY TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY http://www.isrtp.org
INTERNATIONAL UNION OF TOXICOLOGY http://www.toxicology.org/intox/


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